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Informatii despre Tchertá Ossédlosti exista , dar nu am gasit nimic in romaneste . Am ceva aici in engleza . Sa traduci textul asta cu acuratete ia ceva timp, dar presupun ca majoritatea colegilor de sait au cunostiinte suficiente sa citeasca textul .
PALE OF SETTLEMENT:
A portion of Russia in which Jews are allowed to reside. Unlike other Russian subjects, the Jewish inhabitants do not generally possess the natural right of every citizen to live unrestrictedly in any place in the empire. Furthermore, they are permitted to leave the Pale of Settlement—that is, to move to another place for permanent or for temporary residence—only under certain conditions defined by law.
Beginnings of the Pale.
The fundamental official motive for this limitation is ostensibly the protection of the less enlightened Russian people against the economic enslavement that might be imposed upon them by the Jews. But the exceptions made by the government were directly calculated to develop the economic activity of the Jewish population; hence it may be assumed that by the establishment of the Pale it was really intended to remove the religious influence of the Jews over the Russians. Accordingly, the Pale included, besides the Polish governments, the South-Russian governments, where the Greek-Orthodox element did not form a considerable portion of the mixed population. With the successive partitions of Poland the Pale was enlarged by the addition of governments wherein Jews lived in great numbers. In 1794 it included those of Minsk, Izyaslav, Bratzlav, Polotzk, Moghilef, Kiev, Chernigov, Novgorod-Syeversk, and Yekaterinoslav, and the territory of Taurida. To these were soon added the Lithuanian governments of Wilna and Grodno; and in 1799 the Pale was further augmented by the addition of Courland. In 1804 Jews were given access to the governments of Astrakhan and Caucasia; but at the end of the reign of Alexander I. and in the reign of Nicholas I. the extent of the Pale was diminished. Thus in 1835 the governments of Astrakhan and Caucasia were no longer included. At the same time the Jews were forbidden to reside in certain places within the Pale itself, e.g., in the military ports of Sebastopol and Nikolaief (Nikolayev), and in Kiev; in the villages of the governments of Moghilef (Mohilev) and Vitebsk; and on crown lands and in the Cossack villages of the governments of Chernigov and Poltava. Aside from this, the Jews were forbidden to settle anew in the fifty-verst boundary zone. About this time also Jews were expelled from the villages and hamlets of certain governments.
Poland Not in the Pale.
At present (1904) the Pale includes, according to law, fifteen governments: Bessarabia, Wilna, Vitebsk, Volhynia, Grodno, Yekaterinoslav, Kovno, Minsk, Moghilef, Podolia, Poltava, Taurida, Kherson, Chernigov, and Kiev. Moreover, Jews registered in the merchant gilds may reside in Sebastopol (since 1861), in Nikolaief (since 1866), and in Kiev (since 1861). The right of temporary residence in the last-cited place is granted also to young men studying in schools or in workshops, as well as to their parents. Two districts only, Plock (Plossk) and Lybed, are assigned for residence to the Jews; and Jews may live in other parts of the city only by special permission of the local authorities. Under Alexander III. the city of Taganrog, the district of Rostov, and the city of Yalta (1893) were excluded from the Pale, which was still further narrowed during his reign by the so-called „Temporary Regulations” (1882), which have now remained in force for more than twenty years.
By the provisions of the new law Jews were forbidden to settle anew outside of towns and townlets; and only those Jews were allowed to remain in the villages who had already lived there for many years. Yet the general conditions of the times led to the expulsion also of those who had the legal right toreside in villages. The senate was overwhelmed with complaints, and repeatedly declared that certain expulsions were illegal, explaining, for instance, that the removal of a Jew from one house to another in the same village could not be considered sufficient cause for his expulsion from the village itself; and that a Jew who had left a village for a term of service in the army did not thereby lose the right at the conclusion of such service to return to his old residence. The local authorities, however, continued and still continue to expel the outlawed Jews. In the reign of Alexander III. the Jews were energetically removed from the fifty-verst boundary zone, where they had again settled during the milder reign of Alexander II. Recently the law prohibiting Jews from living in the boundary zone was abolished; and the Pale was correspondingly augmented.
Case of Siberia.
The right to leave the Pale of Settlement and to reside permanently in any part of Russia is with certain exceptions accorded to the following classes of Jews:
(1) Merchants of the first gild: The law of 1859 permits Jews who have been registered for a period of five years as merchants of such gild within the Pale to register also in the gilds of any place outside the Pale, and to establish themselves in such places with their families and a certain number of servants. But when a merchant who has been a member of the gild for less than ten years ceases to be a member of it, he must, even when possessing real property, move back to the Pale within two years. Only continuous membership in the first gild for a period of ten years secures to the merchant the right to remain without the Pale after leaving the gild. A special exception is made in the city of Moscow. A Jew may become a member of the Moscow merchant gild only by permission of the minister of finance and the governor-general of Moscow; and the right of residence in Moscow is withdrawn on resignation from the gild.
Besides those mentioned, the following limitations are in force: No Jew has the right of permanent residence in Finland. In the military province of the Don the right of residence is given (since 1880) only to persons possessing a higher education. In the provinces of Kuban and Tersk permission to reside is given (since 1892) only to graduates of the higher institutions of learning, and among merchants only to those who have long been registered in one of the local communities. Jews have not the right to settle anew in Siberia. Jews illegally residing outside the Pale are sent home and are then prosecuted.
By a decree of Aug. 11, 1904, the limitations concerning the right of residence have been somewhat lessened. The following classes of Jews may now reside in villages and other rural communities: (1) Graduates of higher educational institutions and their children—their daughters until marriage, their sons until they reach their majority or until they complete their course in the higher educational institutions, but not beyond the age of twenty-five. (2) Merchants of the first gild and members of their families; also merchants who have been members of the first gild for a period of fifteen years. (3) Artisans and master workmen. (4) Retired soldiers who have served under the old conscription statutes.
Unrestricted right of residence is accorded to counselors of commerce and of manufactures (the number of these is very small), and to soldiers who have participated in the campaign in the Far East. Jews who have been members of the first gild, even though not continuously, for a period of ten years receive the right of unrestricted residence and may register in a local community. There are several other privileges of minor importance. The rights here enumerated do not apply, however, to those localities where special regulations concerning the Jews exist, as, for instance, the city and government of Moscow, Finland, Siberia, etc